Zygmunt Freud (1856-1939) – curriculum vitae
Hardly anyone associates so closely with one place, like Sigmund Freud from Vienna. Was born in 1856 r. in Freiberg in Moravia as the son of a Jewish wool merchant, and he died in 1939 r. in exile in London. He spent most of his 83-year-old life in Vienna. The Freud family moved to the capital when Sigismund was just a child 4 lata. W 1873 r. started medical studies at the university, he wanted to become a scientist. It took him three years longer than the program to complete his degree, in addition, after graduation, the would-be scientist changed his interests and went to a medical practice at the General Hospital. W 1887 r. he began practicing as a neuropathologist, conducting experiments with the use of cocaine, electrotherapy and hypnosis. Finally, he applied the "pressure technique."”. The novelty was that, that the patient would lie down on the couch, and Freud asked him questions, pressing his hand on his forehead at the same time. Later Freud used the method of loose associations. Patients told about everything, whatever they could think of. Explaining your work, Freud was talking: “The goal is modest: the point is, to show the neurotic, that his situation is not an exceptional misfortune, but a disease, happening to everyone”.
W 1896 r. Freud for the first time he used the term "psychoanalysis" he coined”, and four years later he published a revolutionary book About a Dream. He argued in it, that “all dreams are the expression of a dream come true”, many of which (not all) it comes from human sexuality. Freud's Influence on the Thought of the 20th Century. turned out to be huge, and several of his discoveries have passed into everyday language (death instinct, Oedipus complex, transfer, erroneous actions, jealousy of the penis, childhood stages: oral, anal and phallic etc.). Many terms are an abuse of Freud's thought, for example "Freudian symbols”, used by Freud only in the analysis of dreams, today they are commonly used for all kinds of sexual allusions.
W 1902 r. Freud founded the Psychoanalytical Society, whose meetings were held every Wednesday evening in the scientist's apartment. The wife then served Gugelhupf and coffee, and the audience read their papers and held discussions. He was very strict with his students, and if any of you disagreed with him, he was just kicked out. The most famous of them was the Swiss psychoanalyst, Carl Jung, expelled in 1913 r.
Admittedly, Jung accused Freud of this, that he slept with his young sister-in-law, pretty Minna, living with her family in Berggasse, but one should not believe it. In fact, the psychoanalytic theorist was an exemplary Viennese paterfamilias. After meeting him, one of his "devotees."”, French poetess, hr. Anna de Nouailles took a note: “What a horrible man! I'm sure, that he had never cheated on his wife! It's abnormal and outrageous!”. Freud spent his life happily in a relationship with Marta Bernays, a decent Jewish Hausfrau, who bore him and raised six healthy children. He was admitting patients every day between three and four without prior appointment. For fees, he bought antiques that filled the office (rarely on erotic topics). In the evenings and at night he wrote, It happened, that until three in the morning. He would go out for a walk every afternoon, walking briskly across the Ringstrasse. He played tarok on Saturday evenings, and every summer Sunday he and his family dressed up from head to toe in Austrian national costume (including leather panties) and set off to pick mushrooms in the Vienna Woods.
Freud was a cigar addict. W 1923 r. he was diagnosed with cancer of the jaw, barely giving him 5 years of life. The following year, the 68-year-old scholar obtained citizenship of Vienna without normal practice, which would order this honor two years later. How he was joking, telling a friend about it, evidently the councilors thought, that he would die soon. However, it turned out, that he was yet to survive 16 years in suffering. Passed 33 operations, had to undergo oral cleansing every day in order to correctly place a mismatched denture.
Soon after the anschluss of St. 1938 r. Freud's apartment was visited by an SS detachment. Marta, as always polite and hospitable, she asked uninvited guests to leave their weapons on the umbrella stand, and then invited them, to sit down. The aftermath of the invasion was depriving the Freudians of their passports and taking them away 6000 shillings from the family safe. Freud commented on the incident with a straight face, saying he would never charge that much for one visit. Before he was allowed to leave the country, had to sign a document, in which he stated, that he was treated with respect and “allowed to live and work without harassment”. Freud signed the paper, but he asked for one sentence to be added, which sounded: “I heartily recommend the Gestapo services to everyone”.
Only the strenuous efforts of friends made, that 3 June 1938 r. Freud managed to escape to Great Britain. His four sisters were not allowed to leave and died, becoming victims of the Holocaust. After staying in London for more than a year, cancer started to make itself felt. When the pain became unbearable, a doctor gave his patient a lethal dose of morphine.